Among the patients with a normal result on thallium scintigraphy, exercise capacity was lower in the presence of an abnormal value for heart-rate recovery (men, 7.9 MET vs. 9.8 MET in patients with a normal value; women, 6.0 MET vs. 7.4 MET; P<0.001 for both comparisons). If someone just stops immediately after having heart rate elevated during exercise, there is … Circles represent the relative risk of death for each of the quintiles as compared with the quintile with the greatest reduction (5th). Dead is dead -- artificial definitions are no substitute. A reduction in the heart rate of 12 beats per minute after the cessation of exercise was used as the definition of a low value for the recovery of the heart rate. Nallamothu N, Ghods M, Heo J, Iskandrian AS. Continuous variables are presented as means ±SD. A cool down is designed primarily to help you slow your heart rate and stretch or, to be more precise, lengthen muscle fibers that have been contracted during your workout. Video and challenge. Your muscles need more fuel when you exercise, and that's why your heart rate, or pulse, increases. They were also more likely to take nondihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers or vasodilators. The Autonomic Tone and Reflexes after Myocardial Infarction study21 was a large, prospective, multicenter study in which patients who had had myocardial infarctions were stratified according to markers of autonomic control. Find your pulse (inside your wrist, on … Heart rate increase and maximal heart rate during exercise as predictors of cardiovascular mortality: a 16-year follow-up study of 1960 healthy men. Just as exercise raises your heart rate, it also raises your breathing rate. Differences in the proportion of patients with an abnormal value for heart-rate recovery (≤12 beats per minute) were compared with use of the chi-square test for trend.19 Logistic-regression analysis was used to assess the effects of exercise capacity and medications on heart-rate recovery after adjustment for age, sex, and the presence or absence of perfusion defects on thallium scintigraphy.20 All analyses were performed with the SAS statistical package (version 6.12, SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.). The higher the number, the more ﬁt you are. A drop in diastolic pressure after exercise that has been talked above is also normal, but it should come to the normal level later. Your resting heart rate can tell you a lot. Running may cause your heart rate to race, while walking will likely only elevate it a little bit. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is commonly defined as the decrease of heart rate at 1 minute after cessation of exercise and is an important predictor of all‐cause mortality and death associated with coronary artery disease.However, HRR at earlier time intervals after cessation has not been well evaluated and might better reflect PNS reactivation. During exercise, especially moderate and high-intensity exercise, your rate of breathing speeds up due to increased oxygen needs by skeletal muscles. As soon as resting started, its rate should have quickly decreased. Estimates of the Relative Risk of Death within Six Years According to Heart-Rate Recovery One Minute after Cessation of Exercise. Cardiovascular (heart) disease is the nation’s number one killer of both men and women. 21. There were 213 deaths from all causes. The increase in heart rate that accompanies exercise is due in part to a reduction in vagal tone. Only the 1000 most recent citing articles are listed here. The target heart rate is a guideline which can help you stay in a safe exercise heart rate range. La Rovere MT, Bigger JT Jr, Marcus FI, Mortara A, Schwartz PJ. Our study extends these findings in two important ways. Fletcher GF, Balady G, Froelicher VF, Hartley LH, Haskell WL, Pollock ML. Athletes and regular exercisers monitor their heart rates during exercise to get a sense of how hard they're working. Background. To assess further the association of heart-rate recovery with mortality, the population was divided according to quintiles of values for recovery, with relative risks and confidence intervals calculated on the basis of comparisons with the highest quintile. Just before each beat the heart fills with blood, it then contracts which squeezes the blood along. A total of 639 patients (26 percent) had abnormal values for heart-rate recovery. This will help you improve your cardiorespiratory fitness. Case Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Incarceration and Social Death — Restoring Humanity in the Clinical Encounter, Testing in a Pandemic — Improving Access, Coordination, and Prioritization, Injuries from Less-Lethal Weapons during the George Floyd Protests in Minneapolis, Convalescent Plasma Antibody Levels and the Risk of Death from Covid-19, (A Little) Clarity on Convalescent Plasma for Covid-19, Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Recent Worsening Heart Failure, Bupropion and Naltrexone in Methamphetamine Use Disorder. Lancet 1997;349:662-663, 8. Valuable tools for building a rewarding career in health care. Go RT, Marwick TH, MacIntyre WJ, et al. The increase in cardiac output at intensities up to 50-60% of a person’s maximum heart rate is attributable to increases in heart rate and stroke volume. We specifically focused on overall mortality as an unbiased, objective end point.7. Thus, you may want to keep one training log of your recovery rates during moderate-intensity exercise and another for your anaerobic workouts — those above about an 8 on a scale of zero to 10; these are the workouts during which it's difficult to say more than a word or two at a time. Recovery of the heart rate immediately after exercise is a function of vagal reactivation. Imai K, Sato H, Hori M, et al. Muscles use oxygen to create the fuel needed for the work involved in exercise. Your heart rate offers a more objective look at exercise intensity. The more you exercise, the more efficient the heart becomes at this process, so you can work out harder and longer. Biometrics 1992;48:411-425, 15. 1. If you’re using a fitness watch with continuous HR, you can measure y our heart rate for all your exercise sessions including both weight training and aerobic workouts. During anaerobic exercise, your body’s need for oxygen increases. Schwartz PJ, La Rovere MT, Vanoli E. Autonomic nervous system and sudden cardiac death: experimental basis and clinical observations for post-myocardial infarction risk stratification. The base-line characteristics of the patients according to whether their heart-rate recovery was normal or abnormal are summarized in Table 1. To decrease the effect of impaired cardiac function, we purposely excluded patients with a history of heart failure, revascularization, or use of digoxin. Since your heart is a muscle, it can benefit from being strained to a certain degree. The patients were encouraged to reach symptom-limited maximal exercise; the achievement of the target heart rate (based on age) alone was not a sufficient reason for the termination of testing. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:641-648, 10. There were no independent associations between the use of beta-blockers or calcium-channel blockers and an abnormal value for heart-rate recovery. All patients gave informed consent before testing; the protocol was approved by the institutional review board of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. A delayed decrease in the heart rate during the first minute after graded exercise, which may be a reflection of decreased vagal activity, is a powerful predictor of overall mortality, independent of workload, the presence or absence of myocardial perfusion defects, and changes in heart rate during exercise. How to Find Your Target Heart Rate. Association between Sex-Specific Deciles of Physical Fitness and Abnormal Values for the Recovery of Heart Rate One Minute after the Cessation of Peak Exercise. In our study, we also found a marked inverse association between heart-rate recovery and exercise capacity. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:154-183, 12. ), Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland. When the value for the 10th percentile (a decrease of eight beats per minute) was used as a cutoff, the sensitivity was 33 percent, the specificity 90 percent, the positive predictive value 24 percent, and the negative predictive value 90 percent; the relative risk was 4.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 5.4; P<0.001). Welsh Government - Health, Social Care and Children's Services: Resting Pulse and Recovery Rate, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport: Post-Exercise Palpation of Pulse Rates - Its Applicability to Habitual Exercisers, The Different Levels of Target Heart Rates During Exercise, Cardio Heart Rate to Burn Fat and Keep Muscle, The Average Heart Rate After Aerobic Exercise. Logarithmic and quadratic transformations and potential interactions were assessed for improvement of fit. There was no association between the recovery of systolic blood pressure and mortality (relative risk of death associated with a fall of 5 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure, 1.01; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.05; P=0.70). An increase in heart rate corresponds to a shortening of the cardiac cycle (RR interval decreases). The fifth report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Topic: Structure and function of living organisms. Before the patients were tested, a review of each patient's chart and a structured interview were conducted to gather data on symptoms, medications, coronary risk factors, previous cardiac events, and other diagnoses.9 Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg at rest, a diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg at rest, or treatment with antihypertensive medication.11 Diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and chronic lung disease were determined on the basis of chart review, interviews with the patients, and use of medication by the patients. Just as exercise raises your heart rate, it also raises your breathing rate. Normal Exercise Pulse Rate for Males on a Treadmill, How Your Heart Rate Changes With Different Exercises, Exercising Heart Rate Recommended for Women. Heart rate response to aerobic training. Information, resources, and support needed to approach rotations - and life as a resident. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199910283411804, Tap into groundbreaking research and clinically relevant insights. By slowly raising your heart rate, the warm-up also helps minimize stress on your heart. The respiration rate is the number of breaths taken per minute. Peer-reviewed journal featuring in-depth articles to accelerate the transformation of health care delivery. Overview. Take your pulse again one minute after exercising. The way the respiratory system responds to exercise will vary from person to person, and also by the activity being performed. The patients were undergoing symptom-limited exercise testing and single-photon-emission computed tomography with thallium scintigraphy for diagnostic purposes. As the heart is working more, the systolic blood pressure increases during exercise. What happens to your heart after exercise? As you get more fit, your resting heart rate may decrease. The thallium scintigraphic techniques in this study were those in use during the early 1990s, and the techniques of today may yield better prognostic results. In univariate analyses, a low value for the recovery of heart rate was strongly predictive of death (relative risk, 4.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 5.2; P<0.001). In the period of EPOC, the body requires additional energy to activate its cooling systems. Address reprint requests to Dr. Lauer at the Section of Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Desk F25, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44195, or at [email protected]. This can help them determine whether they're making progress and increasing their level of cardiorespiratory ﬁtness. That doesn’t necessarily mean that you’ll be taking more breaths. “Your blood pressure and heart rate are similarly changed by exercise and beta blockers,” said Gerald Fletcher, M.D., Professor of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida. After exercise, your heart rate returns to its normal or resting rate fairly quickly. It can reflect your level of fitness, the air temperature, the altitude, how recently you ate and how many cups of coffee you drank this morning. Run around outside or do star jumps for 1 minute. The fall in heart rate immediately after exercise has been shown to be a function of the reactivation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Heart and breathing rates at rest and after exercise vary depending on your cardiovascular fitness. Other factors, including cardiovascular fitness, current health status, age and even gender, affect respiration rate both at rest and during exercise. “The more you exercise and the harder you train, the lower your resting heart rate,” Welch says. and the George M. and Linda H. Kaufman Center for Heart Failure (M.S.L. If you continue to work out and monitor your recovery rate over time, you can expect to see an increase in your recovery rate. Heart rate before, during and after exercise; Heart rate when you’re not exercising; Heart rate when you’re asleep; Your heart speaks volumes to you – you just have to learn to listen, understand, and react accordingly. Doctors also use target heart rate to interpret the results of a cardiac stress test. New York: John Wiley, 1989. Dashed lines represent the 95 percent confidence interval. A low value for heart-rate recovery after exercise testing, which has been previously shown to be a marker of decreased vagal activity, is a powerful and independent predictor of the risk of death. Curb JD, Ford CE, Pressel S, Palmer M, Babcock C, Hawkins CM. Nicole Vulcan has been a journalist since 1997, covering parenting and fitness for The Oregonian, careers for CareerAddict, and travel, gardening and fitness for Black Hills Woman and other publications. As a predictor of death, an abnormally low value for heart-rate recovery had a sensitivity of 56 percent, a specificity of 77 percent, a positive predictive value of 19 percent, and a negative predictive value of 95 percent. Gender and referral for coronary angiography after treadmill thallium testing. A low value for heart-rate recovery was predictive of death in all subgroups, although the association was weaker among the patients with an impaired chronotropic response during exercise and those taking vasodilators or nondihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers. Exercise increases heart rate when corresponds to a shortening of a cardiac cycle. LeBlanc M, Crowley J. Importance of estimated functional capacity as a predictor of all-cause mortality among patients referred for exercise thallium single-photon emission computed tomography: report of 3,400 patients from a single center. Graph 2 also shows there is an increase in the heart rate after exercise. Because a generalized decrease in vagal activity is known to be a risk factor for death, we hypothesized that a delayed fall in the heart rate after exercise might be an important prognostic marker. This means your heart and lungs will become stronger. The increase in BP happens because there is an increase in the demand of oxygen by the muscles. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;25:830-836. The Average Heart Rate After Aerobic Exercise. We determined an abnormal value for the recovery of heart rate by finding the maximal value for the log-rank chi-square test statistic for all possible cutoff points between the 10th and 90th percentiles for the study cohort.14 A secondary abnormal value was based on the value for the 10th percentile for the study cohort. Values above 15 to 20 beats per minute, however, were not associated with further improvements in prognosis. This is in sharp contrast with most risk factors, which, although they identify high-risk groups, predict only a minority of deaths. Keeping track of your heart rate is one of the best ways to gauge your level of exertion and response to a bout of exercise. Lauer MS, Okin PM, Larson MG, Evans JC, Levy D. Impaired heart rate response to graded exercise: prognostic implications of chronotropic incompetence in the Framingham Heart Study. The mechanisms by which impaired heart-rate recovery confers an increased risk of death, even among patients without heart failure or myocardial perfusion defects, are not clear. When you stop exercising, the heart rate goes down and recovers after two minutes. A cutoff value of 12 beats per minute was found to maximize the log-rank test statistic. How High Should Your Heart Rate Be Elevated During Aerobic Workouts? After achieving peak workload, all the patients spent at least two minutes in a cool-down period during treadmill testing at a speed of 2.4 km (1.5 mi) per hour and a grade of 2.5 percent. This period was considered the recovery period. Improved performance increases the amount of blood pumped by your heart during one heartbeat. To determine your recovery, measure your heart rate one minute after your workout. Therefore, it is essential that these findings be confirmed in other populations. To calculate your recovery rate, use a heart rate monitor and note your heart rate immediately after exercising. A prospective comparison of rubidium-82 PET and thallium-201 SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging utilizing a single dipyridamole stress in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. If you don't have a heart rate monitor, you can do it the old-fashioned way by placing your ﬁngers on your carotid artery and counting the number of beats you feel in 15 seconds; multiply that number by four to calculate your beats per minute. “When you become exercise-trained your heart slows and your blood pressure lowers.” At this period, when the heart rate is accelerated, palpitations disappear. Circulation 1995;91:580-615, 13. During six years of follow-up, there were 213 deaths from all causes (9 percent). Exercise testing of most of the patients was conducted according to the standard and modified Bruce protocols.12 Whether cardioactive medications were used on the day of the test was left to the discretion of the referring physician. The Cox proportional-hazards assumption was confirmed by inspection of log [–log (survival function)] curves. The actual numbers vary because everyone's heart rate varies--even between similar people at similar fitness levels. A low value for heart-rate recovery was predictive of death in a number of important subgroups, including the elderly, women, patients with a normal chronotropic response during exercise, and those taking beta-blockers. J Nucl Med 1990;31:1899-1905, 16. Heart. Heart Rate Investigation. October 28, 1999N Engl J Med 1999; 341:1351-1357 Predictive implications of stress testing: follow-up of 2700 subjects after maximum treadmill stress testing. Circulation 1992;85:Suppl I:I-77, 7. There were no marked differences between the groups in the use of beta-blockers. An abnormal value for heart-rate recovery was found in 639 patients (26 percent). Stay connected to what's important in medical research and clinical practice, Subscribe to the most trusted and influential source ofmedical knowledge. To ensure this, the heart beats with more force so that more blood is pushed out. A good warm-up before a workout dilates your blood vessels, ensuring that … The rise in heart rate during exercise is considered to be due to the combination of parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation.4 The fall in heart rate immediately after exercise is considered t… Arai Y, Saul JP, Albrecht P, et al. In general, the higher your heart rate during physical activity, the higher the exercise intensity. Your target heart rate tells you if you're exercising too hard or not hard enough. Comparison of thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and electrocardiographic response during exercise in patients with normal rest electrocardiographic results. Vagally mediated heart rate recovery after exercise is accelerated in athletes but blunted in patients with chronic heart failure. The median value for heart-rate recovery was 17 beats per minute, with a range from the 25th to the 75th percentile of 12 to 23 beats per minute. 70% of your maximum heart rate. Your heart rate, or pulse, is measured in beats per minute (bpm).During cardio exercise such as running, your heart rate increases. Information and tools for librarians about site license offerings. 57 is shown in graph 2. There were 2428 patients who met all inclusion criteria. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:754-766, 18. Modulation of cardiac autonomic activity during and immediately after exercise. After regular and repeated exercise, these systems adapt to become more efficient. The heart rate increases during exercise. The target heart rate, also known as THR, is based on 60 to 80 percent of a maximum heart rate. Ages: 11-12. Then multiply the number of beats by 4 to calculate beats per minute. Heat is produced during exercise, which elevates the body's core temperature 2. A failure to use 80 percent of the heart-rate reserve was considered to be evidence of an impaired chronotropic response.13 This measure is an independent predictor of mortality.8. What happens to the heart rate during exercise has long been considered to be due to the combination of parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation. Vulcan holds a Bachelor of Arts in English and journalism from the University of Minnesota. This is why when we exercise both pulse/heart rate and breathing rate increase. The pulse increases when you work out, and then decreases again when you've finished exercising. Concise summaries and expert physician commentary that busy clinicians need to enhance patient care. Well, my friend, that’s exactly what it is: The most important relationship you’ll ever have. You may check your pulse once or twice in the middle of your workout, helping you keep track of your exercise intensity. How fast your heart pumps during exercise depends on numerous factors such as: Your age; Your fitness level; Intensity of the workout; Your heart’s overall strength; Cardiac output is the rate of blood pumped by the heart. ), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (E.H.B.) During exercise, the heart rate accelerates in order to pump more blood to bear the increased skeletal muscle’s demand for oxygen. It is accelerated in athletes and blunted in patients with heart failure. Example . A cool down after exercise just means you gradually bring you heart rate back down to normal. To work out your target heart rate, multiply your maximum heart rate by 50% and 70%. There are two formulas you can take, let's take a person of 24 years old as an example, s/he has resting heart rate of 65bpm, and want to exercise in between 60-80% of maximum heart rate, so the math will include: Formula 1:Heart rate of maximum workout (220 - age) x maximum heart … You should aim to exercise with your heart rate between these two figures. Thus, in normal condition, the blood pressure after exercise will be high and then return to normal. 20. Hosmer DW Jr, Lemeshow S. Applied logistic regression. There were no differences between the groups in the percentage of patients with abnormal ST-segment response (19 percent vs. 21 percent, P=0.2) or angina during treadmill testing (15 percent vs. 14 percent, P=0.6). Midway through each stage of exercise, at peak exercise, and one minute after the cessation of exercise, data on symptoms, heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure (as measured by indirect arm-cuff sphygmomanometry), and estimated workload (as determined on the basis of standard tables)12 in metabolic equivalents (MET; 1 MET equals 3.5 ml of oxygen uptake per kilogram of body weight per minute) were collected and entered into a computer data base. Your heart rate. Exercising at lower percentages of your maximum heart rate burns a greater percentage of fat calories -- but not more calories overall -- and allows for recovery, while exercising at higher percentages burns more calories overall and increases the strength of your heart muscle. Circulation 1996;93:1520-1526, 4. Although attention has been given to the prognostic implications of changes in heart rate during exercise,1-3 the prognostic value of the rate of decline in heart rate after the cessation of exercise has not been well characterized. Bookmark Resources Heart rate activity video Video. During anaerobic exercise, your heart rate will typically be above 85 percent of your maximum heart rate, which is approximately your age subtracted from 220. It also refers to specific physiological processes or states occurring after exercise that are distinct from the physiology of either the exercising or the resting states. After a six-month endurance training program of moderate intensity, decreases in heart rate of 10 to 30 beats per minute are common at the same standardized submaximal rate of work, the decrease being greater at higher rates, according Costill and Wilmore. The way the respiratory system responds to exercise will vary from person to person, and also by the activity being performed. An abnormal value for the recovery of heart rate was defined as a reduction of 12 beats per minute or less from the heart rate at peak exercise. Exercise increases the rate at which energy is needed from food, increasing the need for both food and oxygen by the body. Coron Artery Dis 1995;6:667-679, 3. If your heart rate is still over 100 even after intense exercise, you need to find out why this is happening, because it shouldn’t be. When you exercise at high intensity, you're in an anaerobic, or oxygen-deprived, state. During exercise, the patients with an abnormal value for heart-rate recovery, as compared with those with a normal value, had lower increases in heart rate from base line (an increase of 61±21 beats per minute vs. an increase of 81±20 beats per minute, P<0.001) and were more likely to have an impaired chronotropic response during exercise (45 percent vs. 23 percent of patients, P<0.001). So a 42 year old person should aim to exercise with their heart rate between 89 and 125 bpm. Heart-Rate Recovery Immediately after Exercise as a Predictor of Mortality. People who are 30 years old and have an exercise heart rate of 138 heartbeats per minute, the average good rate for someone their age, have a good post-exercise heart rate when it’s 98 to 108 heartbeats per minute one minute after exercise. A value of ≤12 beats per minute for the recovery of heart rate was considered abnormal. The abbreviation bpm denotes beats per minute. Goldstein RE, Holmboe ES. When we need more energy, for example to run, the heart beats faster to pump more oxygen around the body. Cox DR. Regression models and life-tables. Subtract the second number from the ﬁrst to arrive at your recovery rate. The scintigraphic methods used in our laboratory between 1990 and 1993 have been described in detail elsewhere.15 We determined a modified summed score on the thallium stress test for each patient by dividing the number of segments of the left ventricle with either fixed or reversible perfusion defects during thallium scintigraphy by the total number of segments. Lancet 1998;351:478-484, 22. First, it helps to know your resting heart rate, Martin says. The median reduction in systolic blood pressure during the first minute of recovery was 8 mm Hg (25th and 75th percentiles, 0 and 20 mm Hg). Lauer MS, Francis GS, Okin PM, Pashkow FJ, Snader CE, Marwick TH. During physical exercise, more oxygen is needed for energy production. The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the heart-rate recovery after exercise as a long-term prognostic marker in a population of consecutive patients referred for exercise testing with single-photon-emission computed tomography and thallium scintigraphy at a single center. Heart When you exercise, heart rate increases to circulate more oxygen (via the blood) at a quicker pace. Exercise increases the rate at which energy is needed from food, increasing the need for both food and oxygen by the body. This is the pressure recorded as the heart contracts during systole (SIS-tuh-lee). Your heart rate slows down when you stop exercising. When your heart beats it sends a wave of … Ellestad MH, Wan MK. The fall in heart rate immediately after exercise has been shown to be a function … A cool down after exercise just means you gradually bring you heart rate back down to normal. Associations between a Low Value for the Recovery of Heart Rate and Mortality in Prespecified Subgroups. Diastolic blood pressure is a … During exercise, your heart is beating harder than normal, and blood vessels are dilated. Increasing levels of physical fitness were strongly correlated with decreasing rates of abnormal values for the recovery of heart rate among men and women (for men: chi-square for trend=207, P<0.001; for women: chi-square for trend=97, P<0.001). The heart rate usually returns to normal within 2 minutes of stopping the exercise. When the heart beats faster, the pulse rate is higher. Learn how to measure your pulse / take your heart rate. When the value for the 10th percentile (eight beats per minute) was used as the cutoff for an abnormal value for heart-rate recovery, it emerged as an independent predictor of mortality (adjusted relative risk, 1.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.4; P<0.001). Exercise increases systolic blood pressure. To assess the association between heart-rate recovery and exercise capacity, the study cohort was divided into sex-specific deciles of exercise capacity, measured in MET. Circulation 1975;51:363-369, 2. To work out the target heart rate for a 42 year old: 178 x 50% = 89 bpm. We encourage more if your heart rate stays high after working out. Figure 1 shows the relative risk of death according to the quintile of heart-rate recovery; once this value dropped below 10 to 15 beats per minute there was a marked increase in the risk of death. Perceived exertion may not always be similar to your heart rate level, and it depends on the individual.
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