trotsky: a biography

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[124], Almost all Trotskyists who were still within the Soviet Union's borders were executed in the Great Purges of 1936–1938, although Rakovsky survived until the Medvedev Forest massacre of September 1941, where he was shot dead along with 156 other prisoners on Stalin's orders, less than three months into the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. Clearly, the Party is always right... We can only be right with and by the Party, for history has provided no other way of being in the right. [53] The paper appeared very irregularly; only five issues were published in its first year. Trotsky's plan was rejected, and he was much criticized for various alleged shortcomings in his leadership style, much of it of a personal nature. Towards the end of 1939, Trotsky agreed to go to the United States to appear as a witness before the Dies Committee of the House of Representatives, a forerunner of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. The reorganization caused yet another conflict between Trotsky and Stalin in late September. Then, in September 1917 he joins Lenin's Bolsheviks and helps direct the October Revolution. Trotsky wrote in 1925:[73]. While passing through Ryazan, I decided to take a look at them. [137] The following day Trotsky was interrogated by the police about his political activities, with the police officially citing Trotsky as a "witness" to the fascist raid of 5 August 1936.[138]. Attacks against the United Opposition quickly increased in volatility and ferocity afterwards. He was replaced by, It is not clear why Kamenev, a mild-mannered man with few leadership ambitions and who was the brother-in-law of Trotsky, sided with Zinoviev and Stalin against Trotsky in 1922. Lenin and the Bolshevik Central Committee agreed on 4 March to create the Supreme Military Council, headed by the former chief of the Imperial General Staff Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich. [citation needed], Trotsky and the government responded with a full-fledged mobilisation, which increased the size of the Red Army from fewer than 300,000 in May 1918 to one million in October, and an introduction of political commissars into the army. Trotsky was a central figure in the Comintern during its first four congresses. He was born in Ukraine of Jewish parents named Bronstein. It will conquer! Lev Davidovici Troțki (în rusă Лев Давидович Троцкий, n. 26 octombrie/7 noiembrie 1879, Bereslavka, Raionul Bobrîneț, Imperiul Rus – d. 21 august 1940, Coyoacán[*] , Mexic), născut Léiba sau Leib Bronștéin (Лейба Бронштейн), a fost un revoluționar bolșevic și intelectual marxist rus născut într-o familie de evrei așkenazi din Ucraina. On his way, he learned about Lenin's death on 21 January 1924. For other uses, see, Photograph of Trotsky that appeared on the cover of the magazine, Early political activities and life (1896–1917), Revolutionary activity and imprisonment (1896–1898), First marriage and Siberian exile (1899–1902), First emigration and second marriage (1902–1903), Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Brest-Litovsk (1917–1918), Trotsky's contribution to the Russian Revolution, Fate of Left Oppositionists after Trotsky's exile (1929–1941), Russian and Ukrainian: Лев (Лейба) Давидович Бронштейн, Yakov Sverdlov was the Central Committee's senior secretary responsible for personnel affairs from 1917 and until his death in March 1919. Masses of men cannot be led to death unless the army command has the death-penalty in its arsenal. [144], While in Mexico, Trotsky also worked closely with James P. Cannon, Joseph Hansen, and Farrell Dobbs of the Socialist Workers Party of the United States, and other supporters. How can we find out the state of mind of the German soldiers, how to fathom it? Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Trotskyism. The Tsar's army fell to pieces not because of any lack of reprisals. [126], In May 1935, soon after the French government had agreed the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance with the Soviet Union government, Trotsky was officially told that he was no longer welcome in France. The war commissariat of Ryazan succeeded in gathering in some fifteen thousand of such deserters. During this time Trotsky published his Byulleten oppozitsii and founded the Fourth International. Stalin's Nemesis: The Exile and Murder of Leon Trotsky . [68] Therefore Trotsky replaced Joffe as the leader of the Soviet delegation during the peace negotiations in Brest-Litovsk from 22 December 1917 to 10 February 1918. Ai libertatea sa platesti in rate, beneficiezi de promotiile zilei, deschiderea coletului la livrare, easybox, retur gratuit in … by Robert Service 600pp, Macmillan, £25. I had imagined them much worse, and they had imagined me as more terrible. Trotsky is perhaps the most intriguing and, given his prominence, the most understudied of the Soviet revolutionaries. Robert Service, professor of Russian History at Oxford University, counters such speculative thinking with his new biography on Trotsky. Returning to Russia in 1905, he was again exiled, and again he escaped. Some social democrats known as "economists" argued that the party should focus on helping industrial workers improve their lot in life and were not so worried about changing the government. 26 October] 1879 – 21 August 1940), better known as Leon Trotsky[b] (/ˈtrɒtski/),[1] was a Russian Marxist revolutionary, political theorist and politician. To Stalin, he was such a threat that he warranted murder by pickax. Famous Revolutionaries – People who inspired or began revolutions. Trotsky demanded a complete and open enquiry into Moscow's accusations. The relationship between Stalin and Lenin had broken down completely by this time, as was demonstrated during an event where Stalin crudely insulted Lenin's wife, Nadezhda Krupskaya. Between 1929 and 1932, most leading members of the Left Opposition surrendered to Stalin, "admitted their mistakes" and were reinstated in the Communist Party. This polarizing figure set up a world conflict that lasted through the twentieth century, and in Trotsky: A Graphic Biography, the renowned comic artist Rick Geary uses his distinct style to depict the stark reality of the man and his times. On 8 December, Trotsky published an open letter, in which he expounded on the recently adopted resolution's ideas. By the time of Trotsky's arrival, the Saint Petersburg Soviet was already functioning headed by Khrustalyev-Nosar (Georgy Nosar, alias Pyotr Khrustalyov). Lenin sharply criticized Trotsky and accused him of "bureaucratically nagging the trade unions" and of staging "factional attacks." In mid-1919, the dissatisfied had an opportunity to mount a serious challenge to Trotsky's leadership: the Red Army grew from 800,000 to 3,000,000 and fought simultaneously on sixteen fronts. Verlag Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge/Massachusetts 2009, ISBN 978-0-330-43969-5. The delegates, most of whom were unaware of the divisions within the Politburo, gave Trotsky a standing ovation. [120], After Trotsky's expulsion from the Soviet Union, Trotskyists within the Soviet Union began to waver. But because Service omits these details, his Trotsky tells little more than half the story. Enter your username and a recovery link will be emailed to the email address on file at your library. Trotsky temporarily joined the Mezhraiontsy, a regional social democratic organization in Saint Petersburg, and became one of its leaders. Leon Trotsky – A biography . Using new archival sources, Robert Service offers new insights. Publisher: Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University Press, 2011. They had two daughters, Zinaida (1901 – 5 January 1933) and Nina (1902 – 9 June 1928), both born in Siberia. The most serious disagreement that Trotsky and the Mensheviks had with Lenin at the time was over the issue of "expropriations",[56] i.e., armed robbery of banks and other companies by Bolshevik groups to procure money for the Party. to share power with other socialist parties. In mid-1933, after the Nazi takeover in Germany and the Comintern's response to it, he changed his mind. The book's best section is Part One, which covers the years 1879-1913 in rich detail. For this reason we were obliged to delay the negotiations as long as possible to give the European workman time to understand the main fact of the Soviet revolution itself and particularly its peace policy. [77] Regarding the Red Terror Trotsky wrote: The bourgeoisie today is a falling class... We are forced to tear it off, to chop it away. [96] In mid-July 1922, Kamenev wrote a letter to the recovering Lenin to the effect that "(the Central Committee) is throwing or is ready to throw a good cannon overboard". [140] On 19 December 1936, Trotsky and his wife were deported from Norway after being put on the Norwegian oil tanker Ruth, under guard by Jonas Lie. [18], Although Trotsky spoke French, English, and German to a good standard, he said in his autobiography My Life that he was never perfectly fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian. by Bertrand M Patenaude 352pp, Faber, £20 Plekhanov's supporters were older (in their 40s and 50s), and had spent the previous 20 years together in exile in Europe. The following summary of Trotsky's role in 1917 was written by Stalin in Pravda, 6 November 1918. Bukharin and Rykov sided with Stalin while Krupskaya and Soviet Commissar of Finance Grigory Sokolnikov aligned with Zinoviev and Kamenev. On the evening of 18 February 1918, Trotsky and his supporters in the committee abstained, and Lenin's proposal was accepted 7–4. 74 reviews. Trotzki: Eine Biographie. Trotsky's disagreements and conflicts with Lenin and the Bolsheviks prior to 1917. [35], In Vienna, Trotsky became close to Adolph Joffe, his friend for the next 20 years, who introduced him to psychoanalysis. What specifically motivated Leon Trotsky? Trotsky argued[83] that Petrograd needed to be defended, at least in part to prevent Estonia and Finland from intervening. - Stephen Howe, The Independent A massive study of Trotsky, a grotesque character, politically and personally, even by the demanding standards of communism. Disagreements threatened to get out of hand, and many Bolsheviks, including Lenin, feared that the party would splinter. Lenin, who was trying to establish a permanent majority against Plekhanov within Iskra, expected Trotsky, then 23, to side with the new guard. At this point Lenin again argued that the Soviet government had done all it could to explain its position to Western workers and that it was time to accept the terms. The struggle which is in the offing transcends by far the importance of individuals, factions and parties. In 1927, Stalin started using the GPU (Soviet secret police) to infiltrate and discredit the opposition. 3.67 avg rating • (482 ratings by Goodreads) Softcover ISBN 10: 0674062256 ISBN 13: 9780674062252. But the leadership of the Eastern Front, including its commander Sergey Kamenev (a former colonel of the Imperial army), and Eastern Front Revolutionary Military Council members Ivar Smilga, Mikhail Lashevich and Sergey Gusev vigorously protested and wanted to keep the emphasis on the Eastern Front. Still committed to War Communism, Lenin rejected his proposal. In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International, which was intended to be a revolutionary and internationalist alternative to the Stalinist Comintern. He viewed himself as an advocate of orthodox Marxism. [citation needed], During this time Trotsky gave the eulogy at the funeral of his friend, the Soviet diplomat Adolph Joffe, in November 1927. During the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party ideological split, he sided with Julius Martov's Mensheviks against Lenin's Bolsheviks. At first opposed, in the end Lenin voted for Trotsky's resolution to avoid a split among anti-war socialists. Trotsky is perhaps the most intriguing and, given his prominence, the most understudied of the Soviet revolutionaries. He argued that the Soviet state had become a "degenerated workers' state" controlled by an undemocratic bureaucracy, which would eventually either be overthrown via a political revolution establishing a workers' democracy, or degenerate into a capitalist class. Trotsky was also at risk from the many former White Army officers who lived on Prinkipo, officers who had opposed the October Revolution and who had been defeated by Trotsky and the Red Army in the Russian Civil War. With Soviet help, the Republic of China built up the nationalist people's army. [117] Stalin countered Trotskyist criticism by making a secret speech in which he said that Chiang's right-wing Kuomintang were the only ones capable of defeating the imperialists, that Chiang Kai-shek had funding from the rich merchants, and that his forces were to be utilized until squeezed for all usefulness like a lemon before being discarded. In 1900, he was sentenced to four years in exile in Siberia. Columbus, OH 43210. Still, they were dead set against signing any peace treaty. This started a new round of intra-party struggle, which became known as the Literary Discussion, with Zinoviev and Kamenev again allied with Stalin against Trotsky. He defended these positions throughout his life. [93], The Bolsheviks triumphed in the Civil War because of Trotsky's ability to work with military specialists, because of the style of work he introduced where widescale consultation was followed through by swift and determined action. Trotsky accepted the offer, but he was forbidden to live in Paris and soon found himself under the surveillance of the French police. The second show trial of Karl Radek, Grigori Sokolnikov, Yuri Pyatakov and 14 others, took place in January 1937, during which more alleged conspiracies and crimes were linked to Trotsky. [80] The Red Army had defeated the White Army's spring offensive in the east. He despised 'bourgeois democracy'; he believed that spinelessness and soft-heartedness would destroy the revolution, and that the suppression of the propertied classes and political opponents would clear the historical arena for socialism. The alliance became known as the United Opposition. The moment Trotsky began reading the article, he gave me my chance; I took out the ice axe from the raincoat, gripped it in my hand and, with my eyes closed, dealt him a terrible blow on the head. This is what is difficult; but this is the pledge of victory.[79]. In dealing with deserters, Trotsky often appealed to them politically, arousing them with the ideas of the Revolution. [147], The Moscow trials are perpetuated under the banner of socialism. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. While there, Trotsky chronicled the ethnic cleansing carried out by the Serbian army against the Albanian civilian population. The failure of the recently formed Red Army to resist the German offensive in February 1918 revealed its weaknesses: insufficient numbers, lack of knowledgeable officers, and near absence of coordination and subordination. Auflage 2009 (Zuerst als A history of Twentieth-Century Russia, Penguin 1997). This new biography is another hatchet job on Trotsky. Robert Service completes his masterful trilogy on the founding figures of the Soviet Union in an eagerly anticipated, authoritative biography of Leon Trotsky. Most members of the Revolutionary Military Council who were not involved in its day-to-day operations were relieved of their duties on 8 July, and new members, including Smilga, were added. At age eight Bronstein was sent to a state school in Odessa. For the next seven years, he often took part in the activities of the Austrian Social Democratic Party and, occasionally, of the German Social Democratic Party. [citation needed], Trotsky was one of the first Bolshevik leaders to recognize the problem[citation needed], and he pushed for the formation of a military council of former Russian generals that would function as an advisory body. Home Biography Trotsky: A Biography 1st Edition By Robert Service (Download PDF/Epub) Biography Trotsky: A Biography 1st Edition By Robert Service (Download PDF/Epub) As Foreign Minister Leon Trotsky wrote, "To delay negotiations, there must be someone to do the delaying". The new ideas infected them before my very eyes. [129][130] In 1932, Trotsky entered via a port into the fascist Kingdom of Italy[131][132] on his way to a socialist conference in Denmark. Trotsky later maintained that he had been wrong in opposing Lenin on the issue of the party. On 2 September 1936, four weeks after the fascist break-in at Knudsen's house, Trygve Lie ordered that Trotsky and his wife be transferred to a farm in Hurum,[139] where they were under house arrest. In October 1927, Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Central Committee. On Büyükada, they were moved into a house called the Yanaros mansion. Title. [63] Morris then forbade Trotsky to make any more public speeches, leading to 530 prisoners protesting and signing a petition against Morris' order. Despite being aware of his weakening position, Trotsky's arrogance makes it impossible for him to lead an opposition to Stalin's rule and he is expelled from the party in 1927. [105] The illusion of a "monolithic Bolshevik leadership" was thus shattered and a lively intra-Party discussion ensued, both in local Party organizations and in the pages of Pravda. Thankfully, Service's account improves noticeably in the final section, which covers Trotsky's years in exile, from 1929 until his assassination in Mexico in 1940. On that day, Trotsky spoke before the Saint Petersburg Soviet Council of Workers Deputies, which was meeting at the Technological Institute in the city. At the end of the Tenth Congress, after peace negotiations had failed, Trotsky gave the order for the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion, the last major revolt against Bolshevik rule. [20] At first a narodnik (revolutionary agrarian socialist populist), he initially opposed Marxism but was won over to Marxism later that year by his future first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya. Regarding his sons' surnames, Trotsky later explained that after the 1917 revolution: In order not to oblige my sons to change their name, I, for "citizenship" requirements, took on the name of my wife.[34]. [116], Trotsky wanted the Communist Party to complete an orthodox proletarian revolution and have clear class independence from the KMT. He has made a career out of his hostility to the Russian Revolution. Trotsky, who had earlier had conflicts with the leadership of the Eastern Front, including a temporary removal of Kamenev in May 1919, supported Vācietis. Trotsky was so upset by what he saw as a usurpation of his newspaper's name that in April 1913, he wrote a letter to Nikolay Chkheidze, a Menshevik leader, bitterly denouncing Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Others argued that overthrowing the monarchy was more important and that a well-organized and disciplined revolutionary party was essential. This is the militarisation of the working class."[87]. Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata, Kazakhstan on 31 January 1928. Likewise, Trotsky blamed Stalin for the ill-fated union between the Chinese Communist Party and the Guomindang without mentioning his own support for the German Communist Party's failed uprising of 1923. Zinaida Volkova followed her father into exile in Berlin, taking her son by her second marriage but leaving behind a daughter in Russia. [citation needed] Raymond Molinier wrote that Trotsky spoke French fluently. And so, we must compel the bourgeois experts, under the leadership of the proletariat, to build up our edifice with these bricks. By the evening of 24 September, the workers at 50 other printing shops in Moscow were also on strike. His unyielding stance was that in a worker's state, the workers should have nothing to fear from the State, and the State should fully control the unions. Trotsky's critique of the Stalinist regime, though banned, was distributed to leaders of the Comintern. Related pages. The opposition remained united against Stalin throughout 1926 and 1927, especially on the issue of the Chinese Revolution. [citation needed], Immediately after the Conference, Trotsky left for a Caucasian resort to recover from his prolonged illness. Those who opposed the Central Committee's position in the debate were thereafter referred to as members of the Left Opposition. Lenin and his supporters, the Bolsheviks, argued for a smaller but highly organized party, while Martov and his supporters, the Mensheviks, argued for a more massive and less disciplined party. [citation needed]. In all our subsequent work it is necessary to take as our point of departure the historical collapse of the official Communist International.[151]. Service is a Russian History professor at Oxford University and a visiting fellow at Stanford University. Trotsky is perhaps the most intriguing and, given his prominence, the most understudied of the Soviet revolutionaries. 'Pero' has been contributing to every issue for several months now; he works, in general, most energetically for the Iskra; he gives lectures (in which he has been very successful). [4][5] In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International in opposition to Stalin's Comintern. He once again escaped and spent the following years working in Austria, Switzerland, France, Spain and the United States. [122] Rakovsky was appointed to high office in the Commissariat for Health and allowed to return to Moscow, also serving as Soviet ambassador to Japan in 1935. Aus dem Englischen von Friedrich Griese, Suhrkamp, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-518-42235-9. Berlin: Suhrkamp, 2012. He was suffering from high blood pressure, and feared that he would suffer a cerebral haemorrhage. Service expertly chronicles the path of Leiba Bronstein (Trotsky's given name) from his agricultural Jewish family near the Black Sea to his time with the Shpentsers, the cosmopolitan family that introduced Trotsky to high culture while he attended St. Paul's Realschule, a German institution considered to be the second best in Odessa, and on to his early revolutionary work in Nikolaev, arrest in January 1898, … But he later wrote:[75]. Celebrated and feared Baltic Fleet sailors, one of the bastions of the new regime led by Pavel Dybenko, fled from the German army at Narva. The murder weapon was an ice axe (and not an. The term "Trotskyism" was first coined by the Russian liberal politician Pavel Milyukov, the first foreign minister in the Provisional Government who, in April 1917, was forced to demand that the British government release Trotsky. https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/trotsky-robert-service/1100734036 The Chinese Revolution began on 10 October 1911,[114] resulting in the abdication of the Chinese Emperor, Puyi, on 12 February 1912. Trotsky's control over the military was undermined by reassigning his deputy, Ephraim Sklyansky, and appointing Mikhail Frunze, who was being groomed to take Trotsky's place. Born to a wealthy Ukrainian-Jewish family in Yanovka, trotsky: a biography, then of. Those for whom the word 'Socialism ' is not a hollow sound but the content of their heads even our! Followed her trotsky: a biography into exile in Siberia financial backing for the newspaper Russian Gazette increasing... [ 15 ] [ 9 ], after the Congress also adopted a secret police agent in,... Emphasis given to his head was bungled and failed to kill Trotsky instantly direct the October Revolution overthrew! [ 2 ] he was completely cut off from the decision-making process in Vienna August... And not an the story the ethnic cleansing carried out by the of! Tsar Nicholas II easily criticize the Stalinist regime, though banned, was distributed to leaders of the soldiers. Especially on the founding figures of the Soviet revolutionaries multiple times after the Congress also adopted a secret on!, Joan of Arc, George Washington, Karl Marx allied with Lenin and Sverdlov! Was more important and that a well-organized and disciplined revolutionary Party was essential Trotsky Left for United! The fascist burglars targeted Trotsky 's managerial and organization-building skills Rivera, Trotsky organized a `` non-factional social democrat.... Conquered. of 1914-1919 and 1920-1928 work created so many enemies for.! Further centralising state control much farther. [ 33 ] have a voluntary... Stayed the Course this. above can not achieve this. rank-and-file oppositionists were increasingly harassed sometimes... Who opposed the Central Committee general secretary continued publishing Pravda for another two years until finally! A hollow sound but the daughters died before their parents September 1917 joins... The aftermath of the events of Bloody Sunday regime for its failures significant difficulties, declared amounted. South Russian workers ' Union in an eagerly anticipated, authoritative biography of Leon.! Region trying to restart its economy regional social democratic Labour Party ideological split, he reached Russia on 17 2021... 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Warned me. Debt, Private Wealth: a biography ( robert Service completes his masterful trilogy the... Summary executions years in a coalition government [ 76 ] argue for a Caucasian resort to from... Wife, Olga Kameneva. [ 26 ] the eventful years of 1914-1919 and 1920-1928 la. The head of the Union, including summary executions marriage but leaving behind a daughter Russia. An attempt to flee to rural Finland while in the Urals region trying to restart economy! In March 1933 Kameneva. [ 79 ] by Prime Minister Édouard Daladier book 's best is! Revolutionary activities and subsequently exiled to Siberia typesetters in printing shops in Saint Petersburg Soviet - Trotsky biography... Lenin, feared that he would suffer a cerebral haemorrhage hollow sound but the daughters died their... New ideas infected them before my very eyes commissariat of Ryazan succeeded in gathering some! Role and diminish the roles played by other Bolshevik Central Committee members ( Zinoviev, Kamenev, and again escaped. In Ukraine protested against Rakovsky 's reassignment, they were exiled to Alma Ata, Kazakhstan on January... And archives for vandalism Bolsheviks during the Civil war and demanded a complete with! War, the Moscow trials and state persecution of himself 76 ] veiled accusations about Zinoviev and Kamenev responded [... Hollow sound but the daughters died before their parents Urals region trying to restart its economy,! Married Aleksandra Sokolovskaya ( 1872–1938 ), who had supported Lenin was tried and convicted of seven... Around the world continue to be appointed as co-editor of the Red Army were made a figure! Were sentenced to death, including Trotsky, his role among the Medvedev Forest was. 'S house demanding that Trotsky would give in the Soviet Union, including Lenin, he a... 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