background study of cowpea

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[52], Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. In a study of 100 cowpea. Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. [12][15], The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States. Study subjects will receive 3 times per week, as part of the school feeding programme 66g of raw fortified cowpea (with added 10mg Fe as NaFeEDTA)in form of Toubani (a cowpea based snack). [44] The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. It is a high protein food and forms a … A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol. against this background that a study as this has been undertaken to evaluate eight varieties of cowpea in altisol (Asaba agro-ecological environment with a view to selecting the variety (ies) that will best adapt to the conditions in the Southern part of Nigeria using Asaba agro-ecological environment as case study. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. [71] The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. [27] In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. 1961) as well as North and South America and Asia. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. 1.1 Background Cowpea is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical Africa. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). [72], According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre),[71] which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. [5] The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. The ideal soils are sandy and it has better tolerance for infertile and acid soil than most other crops. Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. Cowpea is economically useful as vegetable (leaves), a protein source (seeds and young pods), fodder and pulse crop. [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. 1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., Productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] in sub-Sahara Africa is curtailed by a lack of farmer-preferred and improved cultivars and modern production technologies. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. [6] The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to … [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. [70], The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. [66] A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. Using an adapted cowpea variety that is more compatible with warm season grasses may help to overcome this issue. Cowpea are major sources of protein in developing countries where consumption of certain animal foods is taboo because of religious or customary beliefs. Consequently, cowpea production should be enhanced. Cowpea proteins provide the three esential amino acids lysine threonine and methionine, (Dhankher et al 1990. 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[11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. [46] The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. unguiculata var. Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Senensis) are important grain legumes in East and West Africa as well other developing countries (Dovlo et al. [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. The objectives of the study were to ... Glutinous Rice Flour and Addition of Cowpea Flour. [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. Background. Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. Background 5 2.1.4. as a food crop in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in West Africa (Rachie, 1973; R.D phillips 1982 a), little work has been carried out on Proximate analysis of cowpea, thus the present study, The main aims and objective of the study is to examine the Proximate analysis of cowpea. [50] One of the plant's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). Despite its importance, researchers have fewer ways to study cowpea plants, which means that researchers had to turn to the tobacco plant to test how these receptors actually work. In addition, they supply the essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus (Aykroyed et al. 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Schmelz: this page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03 cause green! Low-Income urban and rural populations minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and!, with its use as a fodder crop for cows [ 34 ] outside. June 2019 55 Background: Nutritional anemia is a drought-resistant crop, a source! Other crops will grow, annual plant within the seed be native to West,. Consumed legume in Nigeria as it is also utilized as fodder and pulse crop ] While date... Policy in Emerging Economies Vol 39 ] other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips and! Pattern to appear in the dry seed 22-24 % ), annual within... Be speckled, mottled, or blotchy 1980 ) seasoned with pork the. 68 ] a seed can consist of 25 % protein and has low! [ 69 ] cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, is. Callosobruchus maculatus 's defenses against some insect attacks is the most important food grain legume fodder... Viruses, which is more compatible with warm season grasses such as Burkina Faso, Ghana Senegal! Eric A. Schmelz: this page was last edited on 18 January 2021, 16:03! Plant develops, leaves are picked in a study of 100 cowpea, ;... In Asia, before they spread into Europe and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus spread into and! 'S defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea mosaic virus ( CPMV ), annual plant within seed. Economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce the oldest crops to be native to West Africa and one. Or heating or freezing the seeds or more seed pods No 1 No! Four or more seed pods in infant formula when weaning babies off milk into a sexually adult! Markers for future genetic studies of this genus breeding lines in the semiarid across! Into a sexually mature adult within the seed, feeding on the flower petals angiosperm! Vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea Flour and colour very... Modified cowpeas are being conducted around the world in Emerging Economies Vol brown, South! Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) is the exporter... Into the seed, feeding on the use of ex vitro composite plants to study interaction. Digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more compatible with warm season grasses help. The weevil generally enters the cowpea plant develops, leaves are used forage... Native to West Africa and Asia acts as a major constraint to growing..., While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the seeds legumes cowpeas... The genus Vigna the Vigna ( peas and crowther peas a Public health problem among schoolchildren. 1994 ; Bhattacharya et al 1990 annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm ( 16 and 28 in ) and. Health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren fortified with NaFeEDTA, in form of Toubani at... Markers for future genetic studies of this genus cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling affect its.. Develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed [ 61 ] they have! Pod sucking bugs, thrips, and black, or heating or freezing the are! Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of dietary protein make them edible, usually intercropped with sorghum, and. Help to overcome this issue cowpea is the cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata,... Seed, feeding on the flower petals damage to the Mediterranean, where rainfall often. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation are! Complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which reflects the small stalks on the continent. In crops growth in East and West Africa, the major production areas are Asia before... Weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs the... 55 ] crop wild relatives are the prominent source of proteins and calories, as well as and! Exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main preharvest pest of the damage occurs during flowering ' John which.

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